San Pedro Creek Flood Control Project: Integrative Analysis of Natural Hazard Response



Many different elements influenced the San Pedro Creek Flood Control Project, a 

response to the flood hazard along San Pedro Creek in Pacifica, California. The 

influences of the different elements are evaluated using Risa Palm’s integrative 

framework, which consists of three levels of elements (macro, meso, and micro) 

influencing hazard response, the specific environment of the hazard, and the linkages 

between and within all of the levels. Palm’s framework brings to light the complexity of 

hazard response and helps to identify issues in planning and implementing the flood 

control project that may be minimized in the future. Meso-level elements significantly 

influenced the planning and implementation of the flood control project; however, the 

goals, experience, and values of the individual acting in a meso-level role often most 

significantly influenced the direction of those meso-level elements. 


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